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Health Advice & Requirements

Health Requirements

 

  • Courses or boosters advised: Hepatitis A; Poliomyelitis; Tetanus.

  • Other vaccines to consider: Diphtheria; Hepatitis B; Meningococcal Meningitis; Rabies; Typhoid.

  • Selectively advised vaccines - only for those individuals at highest risk: Cholera; Yellow Fever.

  • Precautions and antim-malarial tablets : Malaria

Malaria

  • Malaria precautions are essential. Avoid mosquito bites by covering up with clothing such as long sleeves and long trousers especially after sunset, using insect repellents on exposed skin and sleeping under a mosquito net.

  • Malaria risk is high throughout the year in all areas below 1800m.

  • Check with your doctor or nurse about suitable antimalarial tablets.

  • Atovaquone/proguanil OR doxycycline OR mefloquine is usually advised.

  • If you have been travelling in a malarious area and develop a fever seek medical attention promptly.

  • Remember malaria can develop even up to one year after exposure.

  • If travelling to an area remote from medical facilities, consider carrying standby emergency treatment for malaria.

Cholera  

Spread through consumption of contaminated water and food. It would be unusual for travellers to contract cholera if they take basic precautions with food and water and maintain a good standard of hygiene. Risk is higher during floods and after natural disasters, in areas with very poor sanitation and lack of clean drinking water. Risk is highest for humanitarian aid workers; those working in refugee camps or slums; those caring for people with cholera.

 

Diphtheria

Spread person to person through respiratory droplets. Risk is higher if mixing with locals in poor, overcrowded living conditions.

Hepatitis A  

Spread through consuming contaminated food and water or person to person through the faecal-oral route. Risk is higher where personal hygiene and sanitation is poor. Risk is highest for those with underlying medical conditions where there is increased risk of severe disease e.g. chronic liver/kidney disease; haemophiliacs; men who have sex with men; people who inject drugs.

 

Hepatitis B  
Spread through infected blood and blood products, contaminated needles and medical instruments and sexual intercourse. 
Risk is higher for long stays, frequent travel and for children (exposed through cuts and scratches), those who may require medical treatment during travel. Risk is highest for those with underlying medical conditions where there is increased risk of severe disease e.g. chronic liver/kidney disease; haemophiliacs; men who have sex with men; people who change partners frequently; people who inject drugs.

 

Meningococcal Meningitis  
Spread by droplet infection through close person to person contact. Meningococcal disease is found worldwide but epidemics may occur within this country, particularly during the dry season. Risk is higher for those mixing with locals for extended periods.

Poliomyelitis
Spread mainly through person to person contact (faecal-oral route) and by consuming contaminated food and water. A total of 5 doses of polio-containing vaccine are recommended in the UK for lifetime cover. Boosters are usually recommended for travel to countries where polio remains a problem. 

Rabies  

Spread through the saliva of infected animals (especially dogs, cats, bats and monkeys), usually through a bite, scratch or lick to broken skin. Risk is higher for those working or living in remote or rural areas (with no easy access to medical facilities), longer stay travellers, those planning on undertaking activities such as trekking, cycling or running in a 'high risk' country, those working with, or regularly handling animals or bats, as part of their job, and children. 

 

Urgent medical advice should be sought after any animal bite, scratch or lick to broken skin, or bat bite, even after receiving pre-travel rabies vaccine

Altitude and Travel

Tanzania has areas with high altitude (2400m or more) or/and areas with very high altitude (3658m or more). Travellers who may go into areas of high altitude should take care to avoid ill effects of being at altitude including Acute Mountain Sickness, a potentially life-threatening condition. 

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